Victorian Period c 1837 - 1901 - The reign of Queen Victoria through 1901 brought an overall feeling of prosperity and peace as well as a new role model for women. Economic growth heightened the interest and desire for jewelry. Goldsmiths reveled in experimenting with gold. The discovery of diamonds in South Africa in 1867 made diamonds much more accessible and usable. Because jewelry quickly became an "accessory" rather than just a symbol of wealth, semi precious stones such as garnet, coral, amethyst, turquoise, opals and pearls made jewelry affordable and commercial. Edwardian c 1901 - 1915 - With the flourishing of the automobile, airplane and movie industries, new wealth radiated among the upper and middle classes. The color of choice during this period of luxury was white, especially in diamonds. Platinum now became the metal of choice as its strength allowed for the more delicate, intricate, lacy patterns. Filigree as well as decorative motifs such as flowers, bows, ribbons, tassels and swags depicted the refined elegance and luxury of this period. White gold became the substitute for platinum as the more affordable of the metals, especially during W.W.I. Art Nouveau c 1890 - 1919 - Turn of the century uncertainty created a sense of mystery and fantasy that prevailed in design. Much more noticeable in architecture, furniture and textile design, the period afforded jewelry a new approach highlighting the designers creativity rather than the value of materials used. The accent on femininity and the female form prevailed and nature motifs remained strong. International influences emerged in jewelry shown through the Asian influence. Enamel, glass and near colorless stones like moonstone and opal were important during this period. Art Deco c 1920 - 1935 - An era of decadence and "The Roaring Twenties" is followed by the Great Depression brought on by the crash of the stock market in 1929. This new period of transformation was evident in everything from women's role in society, to what was happening around the globe. The discovery of King Tut's tomb in 1922 brought forth Egyptian influences with motifs like the scarab, sphinx and falcon. Eastern influences continued strong and were evident with the use of jade, coral and ivory. New, geometric cuts were developed giving gems a distinct look - the baguette, emerald, triangle and the shield cut became widely used. With Cubism dictating symmetry and geometry, jewelry takes on a new more streamlined look. The new boyish silhouette in fashion was accessorized with long earrings, diamond watches, pearls and beads, and Cocktail rings accented by the use of colored stones such as emeralds, sapphires and rubies. Retro c 1935 - 1950 - The glamour of Hollywood was reflected in jewelry through the thirties and forties. Larger, cluster rings, bracelets, watches and necklaces took on new proportions. Wartime restrictions brought importance to yellow gold again as the use of platinum was limited. Synthetic stones like rubies and sapphires gained importance as they were affordable, largely available and exempt from luxury taxes. Citrine and aquamarine stones became predominant in jewelry of this period, especially in larger, rectangular cuts. Retro jewelry often combines gold alloys using yellow, rose and green.